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Samuel Thomas
Samuel Thomas

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<b>, <strong>, <i>, <em>, <mark>, <small>, <del>, <ins>, <sub>, and <sup> elements to format text in different ways? <h1> to <h6> elements to create headings and subheadings for your web page? - How to use <p> element to create paragraphs and separate text blocks? - How to use <br> and <hr> elements to insert line breaks and horizontal rules? - Advanced HTML Formatting Elements - How to use <div> and <span> elements to group and style text using CSS classes and ids? - How to use <pre> and <code> elements to display preformatted text and code snippets? - How to use <blockquote> and <q> elements to display quotations and citations? - How to use <abbr>, <acronym>, <cite>, and <dfn> elements to provide additional information about abbreviations, acronyms, sources, and terms? - HTML Formatting Tables - How to use <table>, <tr>, <td>, <th>, <thead>, <tbody>, and <tfoot> elements to create and structure tables in HTML? - How to use colspan and rowspan attributes to merge cells in a table? - How to use border, cellpadding, cellspacing, align, valign, width, and height attributes to style tables in HTML? - Conclusion - Summary of the main points covered in the article - Tips and best practices for HTML formatting - Resources and links for further learning HTML Formatting Tutorial HTML is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications. It stands for HyperText Markup Language, which means it uses tags to define the structure and content of a web page. HTML is essential for web development, as it tells the browser how to display the web page and what elements to include, such as text, images, links, forms, etc. HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. They consist of a start tag, an end tag, and some content in between. For example, <p>Hello World</p>




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is an HTML element that creates a paragraph with the text "Hello World". Some HTML elements are self-closing, which means they do not need an end tag. For example, <br> is an HTML element that inserts a line break. HTML attributes are additional information that can be added to HTML elements to modify their behavior or appearance. They are specified in the start tag of an element, after the element name, and consist of a name and a value separated by an equal sign. For example, <p style="color:red">This is red</p> is an HTML element with an attribute named style and a value of color:red. This attribute changes the color of the text to red. To write HTML code, you need a text editor or an online tool that can save and display HTML files. A text editor is a software application that allows you to create and edit plain text files. Some popular text editors for HTML are Notepad++, Sublime Text, Atom, Visual Studio Code, etc. An online tool is a web-based application that allows you to write and run HTML code in your browser. Some popular online tools for HTML are CodePen, JSFiddle, W3Schools Tryit Editor, etc. Basic HTML Formatting Elements HTML provides a number of elements that can be used to format text in different ways. These elements can change the appearance, emphasis, or meaning of the text. Some of the most common HTML formatting elements are: - The <b> element makes the text bold. For example, <b>This is bold</b> will display as This is bold. - The <strong> element also makes the text bold, but it also indicates that the text is important or has a high level of seriousness. For example, <strong>This is important</strong> will display as This is important. - The <i> element makes the text italic. For example, <i>This is italic</i> will display as *This is italic*. - The <em> element also makes the text italic, but it also indicates that the text is emphasized or has a different tone or mood. For example, <em>This is emphasized</em> will display as *This is emphasized*. - The <mark> element highlights the text with a yellow background. For example, <mark>This is highlighted</mark> will display as <mark>This is highlighted</mark>. - The <small> element makes the text smaller than the normal size. For example, <small>This is small</small> will display as <small>This is small</small>. - The <del> element shows that the text has been deleted or removed. It adds a line through the text. For example, <del>This is deleted</del> will display as This is deleted. - The <ins> element shows that the text has been inserted or added. It adds an underline to the text. For example, <ins>This is inserted</ins> will display as <ins>This is inserted</ins>. - The <sub> element makes the text appear as a subscript, which means it is lowered and smaller than the normal text. For example, H<sub>2</sub>O will display as H<sub>2</sub>O. - The will display as E = mc. HTML also provides elements that can be used to create headings and subheadings for your web page. Headings are used to divide your web page into sections and sub-sections, and to provide titles and subtitles for your content. Headings are important for SEO (Search Engine Optimization), as they help search engines and users understand the structure and topic of your web page. HTML has six levels of headings, from <h1> to <h6>. The <h1> element represents the main heading or title of your web page, and should only be used once per page. The <h2> to <h6> elements represent subheadings of different levels, and can be used multiple times per page. The lower the number, the larger and more important the heading. For example: <h1>This is an H1 heading</h1>


<h2>This is an H2 heading</h2>


<h3>This is an H3 heading</h3>


<h4>This is an H4 heading</h4>


<h5>This is an H5 heading</h5>


<h6>This is an H6 heading</h6>


will display as: # This is an H1 heading ## This is an H2 heading ### This is an H3 heading #### This is an H4 heading ##### This is an H5 heading ###### This is an H6 heading HTML also provides an element that can be used to create paragraphs and separate text blocks. The <p> element represents a paragraph of text, and automatically adds some space before and after the paragraph. For example: <p>This is a paragraph.</p>


<p>This is another paragraph.</p>


will display as: This is a paragraph. This is another paragraph. HTML also provides elements that can be used to insert line breaks and horizontal rules in your web page. The <br> element represents a line break, which means it starts a new line without creating a new paragraph. The <br> element is self-closing, which means it does not need an end tag. For example: <p>This is a paragraph with<br>a line break.</p>


will display as: This is a paragraph with a line break. The <hr> element represents a horizontal rule, which means it creates a horizontal line across your web page. The <hr> element can be used to separate sections or topics in your web page. The <hr> element is also self-closing, which means it does not need an end tag. For example: <h1>This is an H1 heading</h1>


<hr>


Advanced HTML Formatting Elements HTML also provides some elements that can be used to group and style text using CSS classes and ids. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets, which is a language that describes how HTML elements should be displayed on the web page. CSS can be used to change the color, font, size, alignment, margin, padding, border, background, and other properties of HTML elements. CSS can be applied to HTML elements using classes and ids, which are attributes that can be added to HTML elements to identify them. The <div> element is a generic container that can be used to group and style text or other HTML elements using CSS classes and ids. The <div> element does not have any specific meaning or appearance by itself, but it can be customized using CSS. For example: <div id="main">


<h1>This is an H1 heading</h1>


<p>This is a paragraph.</p>


</div>


will create a <div> element with a class of intro and an id of main. The class and id attributes can be used to select and style this <div> element using CSS. For example: <style>


.intro background-color: lightblue; padding: 20px; #main border: 2px solid black; margin: 10px; </style>


will apply some CSS rules to the <div> element based on its class and id. The result will look like this: <div id="main" style="background-color: lightblue; padding: 20px; border: 2px solid black; margin: 10px;">


<h1>This is an H1 heading</h1>


<p>This is a paragraph.</p>


</div>


The <span> element is similar to the <div> element, but it is used to group and style text within a paragraph or other inline elements. The <span> element does not create a new line or block, but it can be styled using CSS classes and ids. For example: <p>This is a paragraph with <span id="special">some text</span> inside a span element.</p>


will create a <span> element with a class of highlight and an id of special. The class and id attributes can be used to select and style this <span> element using CSS. For example: <style>


.highlight color: white; background-color: red; #special font-weight: bold; font-style: italic; </style>


will apply some CSS rules to the <span> element based on its class and id. The result will look like this: <p>This is a paragraph with <span id="special" style="color: white; background-color: red; font-weight: bold; font-style: italic;">some text</span> inside a span element.</p>


HTML also provides some elements that can be used to display preformatted text and code snippets. Preformatted text is text that preserves the spaces, tabs, and line breaks as they are written in the HTML code. Code snippets are pieces of code that can be displayed with syntax highlighting and formatting. The <pre> element is used to display preformatted text in HTML. The <pre> element preserves the whitespace characters in the text, such as spaces, tabs, and line breaks. The <pre> element also uses a monospaced font by default, which means that each character has the same width. The <pre> element is useful for displaying text that has a fixed layout or format, such as poetry, ASCII art, or tabular data. For example: <pre>


Roses are red Violets are blue This is preformatted Text for you </pre>


will display as: <pre>


Roses are red Violets are blue This is preformatted Text for you </pre>


The <code> element is used to display code snippets in HTML. The <code> element does not preserve the whitespace characters in the code, but it uses a monospaced font by default. The <code> element is useful for displaying code that has a specific syntax or language, such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, etc. The <code> element can also be nested inside a <pre> element to display preformatted code snippets with whitespace preservation. For example: <pre><code>&lt;h1&gt;This is an H1 heading&lt;/h1&gt; &lt;p&gt;This is a paragraph.&lt;/p&gt;</code></pre>


will display as: <pre><code>&lt;h1&gt;This is an H1 heading&lt;/h1&gt; &lt;p&gt;This is a paragraph.&lt;/p&gt;</code></pre>


HTML Formatting Elements for Quotations and Citations HTML also provides some elements that can be used to display quotations and citations in your web page. Quotations are text that is copied or paraphrased from another source, such as a book, a speech, a website, etc. Citations are text that provides information about the source of the quotation, such as the author, the title, the date, the URL, etc. The <blockquote> element is used to display a long quotation in HTML. The <blockquote> element creates a block-level element that is indented from the rest of the text. The <blockquote> element should also include a <cite> element that provides the source of the quotation. For example: <blockquote>


<p>The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.</p>


<cite>- Franklin D. Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933</cite>


</blockquote>


will display as: <blockquote>


<p>The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.</p>


<cite>- Franklin D. Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933</cite>


</blockquote>


The <q> element is used to display a short quotation in HTML. The <q> element creates an inline element that is surrounded by quotation marks. The <q> element should also include a cite attribute that provides the URL of the source of the quotation. For example: <p>According to Albert Einstein, <q cite="https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/albert_einstein_100015">Imagination is more important than knowledge.</q></p>


will display as: <p>According to Albert Einstein, <q cite="https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/albert_einstein_100015">Imagination is more important than knowledge.</q></p>


HTML also provides some elements that can be used to provide additional information about abbreviations, acronyms, sources, and terms in your web page. These elements are: - The <abbr> element is used to display an abbreviation or an acronym in HTML. The <abbr> element creates an inline element that shows the full form of the abbreviation or acronym when the mouse is hovered over it. The <abbr> element should also include a title attribute that provides the full form of the abbreviation or acronym. For example: <p>The <abbr title="World Health Organization">WHO</abbr> declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.</p>


will display as: <p>The <abbr title="World Health Organization">WHO</abbr> declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020.</p>


- The <acronym> element is similar to the <abbr> element, but it is used to display an acronym that is pronounced as a word, such as NASA or NATO. The <acronym> element creates an inline element that shows the full form of the acronym when the mouse is hovered over it. The <acronym> element should also include a title attribute that provides the full form of the acronym. For example: <p>The <acronym title="National Aeronautics and Space Administration">NASA</acronym> launched the Perseverance rover to Mars in July 2020.</p>


will display as: <p>The <acronym title="National Aeronautics and Space Administration">NASA</acronym> launched the Perseverance rover to Mars in July 2020.</p>


- The <cite> element is used to display the title of a source in HTML. The <cite> element creates an inline element that shows the title of a book, a movie, a song, a website, etc. The <cite> element should also include a href attribute that provides the URL of the source if available. For example: <p>I enjoyed reading <cite href="https://www.amazon.com/Harry-Potter-Philosophers-Stone-Rowling/dp/1408855658">Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone</cite> by J.K. Rowling.</p>


will display as: <p>I enjoyed reading <cite href="https://www.amazon.com/Harry-Potter-Philosophers-Stone-Rowling/dp/1408855658">Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone</cite> by J.K. Rowling.</p>


- The <dfn> element is used to display the definition of a term in HTML. The <dfn> element creates an inline element that shows the meaning of a word or a phrase when the mouse is hovered over it. The <dfn> element should also include a title attribute that provides the definition of the term. For example: HTML Formatting Tables HTML also provides some elements that can be used to create and style tables in your web page. Tables are used to display data or information in a structured and organized way, using rows and columns. Tables are useful for comparing, analyzing, or summarizing data or information. The <table> element is used to create a table in HTML. The <table> element creates a block-level element that contains the rows and columns of the table. The <table> element can have some attributes that can be used to style the table, such as border, cellpadding, cellspacing, align, valign, width, and height. For example: <table border="1" cellpadding="10" cellspacing="0" align="center" width="80%">


<!-- table content goes here -->


</table>


will create a table with a border of 1 pixel, a cell padding of 10 pixels, no cell spacing, a center alignment, and a width of 80% of the available space. The <tr> element is used to create a row in a table. The <tr> element creates an inline element that contains the cells of the row. The <tr> element can have some attributes that can be used to style the row, such as align and valign. For example: <tr align="left" valign="middle">


<!-- row content goes here -->


</tr>


will create a row with a left alignment and a middle vertical alignment. The <td> element is used to create a data cell in a table. The <td> element creates an inline element that contains the data or content of the cell. The <td> element can have some attributes that can be used to style the cell, such as colspan, rowspan, align, valign, width, and height. For example: <td colspan="2" rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="50%" height="100px">


<!-- cell content goes here -->


</td>


will create a cell that spans two columns and three rows, with a right alignment and a top vertical alignment, and a width of 50% and a height of 100 pixels. The <th> element is used to create a header cell in a table. The <th> element creates an inline element that contains the header or title of the cell. The <th> element is similar to the <td> element, but it has some differences: - The <th> element makes the text bold and centered by default. - The <th> element can have a scope attribute that specifies whether the header applies to the row, column, or group of rows or columns. - The <th> element can be used as a child of the <thead>, <tbody>, or <tfoot> elements to create different sections of the table. For example: <th scope="col">Name</th>


<th scope="col">Age</th>


<th scope="row">Alice</th>


<th scope="row">Bob</th>


will create four header cells that indicate the name and age columns and the Alice and Bob rows. The <thead>, <tbody>, and <tfoot> elements are used to create different sections of the table. These elements are optional, but they can help to improve the readability and accessibility of the table. These elements are: - The <thead> element is used to create the head section of the table. The <thead> element contains one or more <tr> elements that define the header rows of the table. - The <tbody> element is used to create the body section of the table. The <tbody> element contains one or more <tr> elements that define the data rows of the table. - The <tfoot> element is used to create the foot section of the table. The <tfoot> element contains one or more <tr> elements that define the footer rows of the table. For example: <table>


<thead>


<tr>


<th>Name</th>


<th>Age</th>


</tr>


</thead>


<tbody>


<tr>


<td>Alice</td>


<td>25</td>


</tr>


<tr>


<td>Bob</td>


<td>30</td>


</tr>


</tbody>


<tfoot>


<tr>


<td colspan="2">Average age: 27.5</td>


</tr>


</tfoot>


</table>


will create a table with three sections: head, body, and foot. Here is an example of how to use HTML formatting elements to create and style a table in your web page: <style>


/* CSS rules for styling the table */ table border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; th, td border: 1px solid black; th background-color: lightgray; font-weight: bold; tr:nth-child(even) background-color: lightblue; </style>


<table>


<thead>


<tr>


<th>Country</th>


<th>Capital</th>


<th>Population</th>


<th>Area (km)</th>


</tr>


</thead>


<tbody>


<tr>


<td>China</td>


<td>Beijing</td>


<td>1,439,323,776</td>


<td>9,596,961</td>


</tr>


<tr>


<td>India</td>


<td>New Delhi</td>


<td>1,380,004,385</td>


<td>3,287,263</td>


</tr>


<tr>


<td>USA</td>


<td>Washington D.C.</td>


<td>331,002,651</td>


<td>9,833,520</td>


</tr>


<tr>


<td>Brazil</td>


<td>Brasilia</td>


<td>212,559,417</td>


<td>8,515,767</td>


</tr>


</tbody>


<tfoot>


<tr>


<th colspan="2">Total:</th>


<th>3,362,890,229</th>


<th>31,233,511</th>


</tr>


</tfoot>


</table>


Conclusion In this tutorial, you have learned how to use various HTML


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